Elias Magnus Fries     (1794 - 1878)

Image of Elias Magnus Fries from Curtis Gates Lloyd (1898 - 1925) Mycological Notes
Elias Magnus Fries

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Other Web Sources
Selected publications


1794     born in Femsjö, in the Smaland area of Sweden.

Image of Elias Magnus Fries from Curtis Gates Lloyd (1898 - 1925) Mycological Notes
Elias Magnus Fries1794     Fries' father was the pastor of the local church, on the right in the image. This is a painting that still hung in the Fries home (on the left in the image) when Theodor Magnus Fries was growing up.

1814     earns PhD in philosophy and botany from the University of Lund, Sweden, and is appointed docent there.

Image of Elias Magnus Fries from J. Dörfler (1906 - 1907) Botaniker Porträts
Elias Magnus Fries1819     promoted to adjunct faculty.

1828     promoted to demonstrator

1834     appointed to the faculty at Uppsala. According to Gray, Wahlenburg occupied the botanical chair, so Fries was made professor of practical economy.

1851     appointment switched to botany

An only child, Fries was first interested in flowering plants by his father, but at the age of 12 his attention was taken by fungi. Within five years he had a knowledge of more than 300 species, to which he gave names, and on going to Lund he was able to see the works of Persoon and other mycologists and to get the current names for some of his specimens.
Dictionary of the Fungi

Isley likewise says that

Fries was ... a child prodigy who yet in his teens probably knew more about the fleshy fungi than anyone in the world except Persoon.

His father had a doctorate in the humanities, and much of the home conversation was in Latin. I have seen a claim somewhere (I can't locate it at the moment, unfortunately) that he actually spoke Latin as a child before he learned Swedish. In any case, his fluency was very helpful for reading botanical works, and finding names for his mushrooms. The first volume of his Novitiae appeared while he was still 20, (I assume that this is material from his dissertation, which is also on flowering plants) and his Icones selectae Hymenomycetum nondum delineatorum, published 63 years later, is still in Latin.

Image of Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus from Eugen Gramberg (1913) Pilze unserer Heimat
Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus The Dictionary of the Fungi credits Fries with the title "the Linnaeus of Mycology", and this seems a fair title, both in the positive and the negative senses. Like Linnaeus, Fries didn't increase our knowledge of the biology of fungi to a noticeable degree, but he did give us an immeasurably better way to organize that knowledge.

There is some controversy regarding Fries' use of the microscope. Gray more or less sums up the standard opinion when he says

The modern microscope did not exist when he began his work, and, while showing how much can be done without it, he may too long have underrated its value. But he lived to see it confirm many conclusions which his insight foresaw, and solve riddles which he had pondered, but was unable to divine.

Image of Hygrocybe coccinea from Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck (1816 - 1817) Das System der Pilze und Schwämme
Hygrocybe coccineaTo this I would add that in using spore color as the basis for classifying the gilled mushrooms, Fries was the first to assign taxonomic importance to a (basically) microscopic feature. I believe that in so doing, he gave impetus to the notion of using microscopic features in taxonomy, as he also did with the genus Hygrophorus, the first genus to be segregated on the basis of a microscopic characteristic (its extra-long basidia)
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Geoffrey Clough Ainsworth, D. L. Hawksworth & P. W. James (1971) Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi

Duane Isley (1994) One Hundred and One Botanists

Dr. Asa Gray (1889) Scientific Papers of Asa Gray

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Other Web Sources

Fries' Pictures of Fungi
The Fries family

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Selected Publications

Elias Magnus Fries (1814) Novitiae florae Suecicae (A beginner's flora of Sweden)
However, the beginner has to know Latin. Apparently, field guides in one's own language had yet to catch on...

Elias Magnus Fries (1815 - 1818) Observationes mycologicae (Mycological Observations) 2 vol.

Elias Magnus Fries (1821 - 1832) Systema mycologicum, sistens fungorum ordines, genera et species huc usque cognitas (Taxonomical System for Mycology, consisting of an ordering of the fungi, genera and species, as currently understood) 3 vol.

Elias Magnus Fries (1825) Systema orbis vegetabilis

Elias Magnus Fries (1828) Elenchus Fungorum (Discussion of Fungi) 2 vol.

Elias Magnus Fries (1831) Lichenographia Europaea reformata (New and Improved Lichenography of Europe)

Elias Magnus Fries (1836 - 1838) Epicrisis systematis mycologici

Elias Magnus Fries (1836) Genera hymenomycetum

Elias Magnus Fries (1846 - 1849) Summa vegetabilium Scandinaviae (Complete Vegetables of Scandinavia) 2 vol.

Elias Magnus Fries (1855) "Novae symbolae mycologicae" (New Mycological Symbols) in Nova Acta Regii Societatis Scientia Upsaliensis 3:1 pp. 17 - 136

Elias Magnus Fries (1861 - 1868) Sveriges ätlige och giftiga Svampar (Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms of Sweden)

Elias Magnus Fries (1871 - 1874) Lichenographia Scandinavica (Lichenography of Scandanavia) 2 vol.

Elias Magnus Fries (1874) Hymenomycetes Europaei (Hymenomycetes of Europe)

Elias Magnus Fries (1877) Icones selectae Hymenomycetum nondum delineatorum (Pictures of Selected Hymenomycetes) 2 vol.

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Abortiporus biennis (Bulliard: Fries) Singer
Agaricus campestris Linnaeus: Fries
Agrocybe dura (Fries) Singer
Agrocybe erebia (Fries) R. Kühner
Agrocybe pediades (Fries) Fayod
Agrocybe praecox (Persoon: Fries) Fayod
Albatrellus confluens (Schweinitz & Albertini: Fries) Kotlaba & Pouzar
Albatrellus cristatus (Persoon: Fries) Pouzar & Kotlaba
Albatrellus ovinus (Fries) Kotlaba & Pouzar
Aleuria aurantia (Fries) Fuckel
Amanita aspera (Fries) Quélet
Amanita caesarea (Scopoli: Fries) Greville sensu D. T. Jenkins
Amanita gemmata (Fries) Bertillon in De Chambre
Amanita muscaria var. muscaria (Linnaeus: Fries) W. J. Hooker
Amanita muscaria var. formosa (Persoon: Fries) Bertillon
Amanita ovoidea Bulliard: Fries
Amanita pantherina var. pantherina (De Candolle: Fries) Secretan
Amanita phalloides Link: Fries
Amanita porphyria (Schweinitz & Albertini: Fries) Secretan
Amanita rubescens (Persoon: Fries) S. F. Gray
Amanita vaginata (Bulliard: Fries) Vittadini
Amanita verna Bulliard: Fries
Armillaria mellea (M. Vahl: Fries) Kummer
Armillariella mellea (M. Vahl: Fries) Karsten
Armillariella tabescens (Scopoli: Fries) Singer
Asterophora lycoperdoides (Bulliard: Mérat) Ditmar: Fries
Asterophora parasitica (Bulliard: Fries) Singer
Baeospora myosura (Fries) Singer
Bisporella citrina (Batsch: Fries) Carpenter & Korf
Bjerkandera adusta (Willdenow: Fries) Karsten
Bjerkandera fumosa (Persoon: Fries) Karsten
Bolbitius reticulatus (Persoon: Fries) Ricken
Bolbitius titubans (Bulliard: Fries) Fries
Bolbitius vitellinus (Persoon: Fries) Fries
Boletopsis subsquamosa (Linnaeus: Fries) Kotlaba & Pouzar
Boletus badius Fries
Boletus chrysenteron (Bulliard) Fries
Boletus edulis Bulliard: Fries
Boletus parasiticus Bulliard: Fries
Bondarzewia berkeleyi (Fries) Singer & Bondartsev
Brefeldia maxima (Fries) Rostafinski
Bulgaria inquinans Fries
Calocera cornea (Batsch: Fries) Fries
Calocera viscosa (Persoon: Fries) Fries
Calvatia craniformis (Schweinitz) Fries
Camarophyllus pratensis (Fries) Kummer
Cantharellus cibarius Fries
Cantharellus tubaeformis Fries
Cerrena unicolor (Bulliard: Fries) Murrill
Chroogomphus rutilus (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) O. K. Miller
Chrysomphalina chrysophylla (Fries) Cleménçon
Clathrus ruber Nees von Esenbeck: Fries
Clavaria amethystina Fries
Clavariadelphus ligula (Fries) Donk
Clavariadelphus pistillaris (Fries) Donk
Clavicorona pyxidata (Fries) Doty
Clavulina amethystina (Fries) Donk
Clavulina cinerea (Fries) J. Schroeter
Clavulina cristata (Fries) J. Schroeter
Clavulinopsis fusiformis (Fries) Corner
Climacodon septentrionale (Fries) Karsten
Clitocybe clavipes (Fries) Kummer
Clitocybe cyathiformis (Fries) Kummer
Clitocybe dealbata (Fries) Kummer
Clitocybe gibba (Fries) Kummer
Clitocybe irina (Fries) H. E. Bigelow & A. H. Smith
Clitocybe nuda (Fries) A. H. Smith & H. E. Bigelow
Clitocybe odora (Fries) Kummer
Clitocybe squamulosa (Fries) Kummer
Clitopilus prunulus (Scopoli: Fries) Kummer
Collybia racemosa (Fries) Kummer
Collybia tuberosa (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Collybia sensu lato butyracea (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Collybia sensu lato dryophila (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Collybia sensu lato maculata (Schweinitz & Albertini: Fries) Kummer
Coltricia perennis (Fries) Murrill
Coniophora puteana (H. C. F. Schumacher: Fries) Karsten
Conocybe filaris Fries
Conocybe tenera (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) R. Kühner
Coprinus atramentarius (Bulliard: Fries) Fries
Coprinus cinereus (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) S. F. Gray
Coprinus comatus (O. F. Müller: Fries) S. F. Gray
Coprinus disseminatus (Persoon: Fries) S. F. Gray
Coprinus domesticus (Bolton: Fries) S. F. Gray
Coprinus lagopus (Fries) Fries
Coprinus micaceus (Bulliard: Fries) Fries
Coprinus niveus (Persoon: Fries) Fries
Coprinus plicatilis (W. Curtis: Fries) Fries
Coprinus radians Desmazières: Fries
Cortinarius alboviolaceus Fries: Fries
Cortinarius argentatus (Persoon: Fries) Fries
Cortinarius armillatus (Fries) Kummer
Cortinarius cinnabarinus Fries
Cortinarius evernius Fries
Cortinarius sanguineus (Wulfen: Fries) S. F. Gray
Cortinarius semisanguineus (Fries) C. C. Gillet
Cortinarius traganus (J. A. Weinmann: Fries) Fries
Cortinarius violaceus (Fries) S. F. Gray
Craterellus crispus Fries
Craterellus odoratus (Schweinitz: Fries) Fries
Creopus gelatinosus (Tode: Fries) Link
Crepidotus applanatus (Persoon: Fries) Kummer
Crepidotus mollis (Fries) Staude
Cystoderma amianthinum (Scopoli: Fries) Fayod
Cystoderma granulosum (Batsch: Fries) Fayod
Daedalea quercina Persoon: Fries
Daedaleopsis confragosa (Fries) J. Schroeter
Daldinia concentrica (Bolton: Fries) De Notaris & Cesati
Datronia mollis (S. C. Sommerfelt: Fries) Donk
Discina perlata (Fries) Fries
Disciotis venosa (Persoon: Fries) Boudier
Exidia glandulosa Bulliard: Fries
Exidia recisa Fries
Favolus alveolaris (De Candolle: Fries) Quélet
Fistulina hepatica Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries
Flammulina velutipes (Fries) Karsten
Fomes fomentarius (Fries) Kickx
Fomitopsis officinalis (Fries) Bondartsev & Singer
Fomitopsis pinicola (O. P. Swartz: Fries) Karsten
Ganoderma lucidum (F. W. von Leysser: Fries) Karsten
Geastrum fimbriatum Fries
Gerronema chrysophylla (Fries) Singer
Globifomes graveolens (Schweinitz: Fries) Murrill
Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Fries) Karsten
Gloeoporus dichrous (Fries) Bresadola
Gloeoporus taxicola (Persoon: Fries) Ryvarden & R. L. Gilbertson
Gomphidius glutinosus (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) Fries
Gomphidius maculatus (Scopoli: Fries) Fries
Grifola frondosa (J. J. Dickson: Fries) S. F. Gray
Grifola umbellatum (Persoon: Fries) S. F. Gray
Gymnopilus junonius (Fries) P. D. Orton
Gymnopilus liquiritiae (Persoon: Fries) Karsten
Gymnopilus penetrans (Fries: Fries) Murrill
Gymnopilus sapineus (Fries) R. Maire
Gymnopilus spectabilis (Fries) A. H. Smith
Gymnopus dryophilus (Bulliard: Fries) Murrill
Gymnopus fusipes (Bulliard: Fries) S. F. Gray
Gyromitra caroliniana (Bosc: Fries) Fries
Gyromitra esculenta (Persoon: Fries) Fries
Gyromitra infula (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) Quélet
Gyroporus castaneus (Fries) Quélet
Hapalopilus nidulans (Fries) Karsten
Hebeloma mesophaeum (Persoon: Fries) Quélet
Helvella crispa Fries
Helvella lacunosa Fries
Hemitrichia clavata (Fries) Rostafinski
Hericium coralloides (Scopoli: Fries) S. F. Gray
Hericium erinaceus (Fries) Persoon
Heterobasidion annosum (Fries) Brefeld
Hohenbuehlia petaloides (Bulliard: Fries) Schulzer von Müggenberg
Hydnellum scrobiculatum var. zonatum (Batsch: Fries) K. A. Harrison
Hydnum repandum Linnaeus: Fries
Hygrocybe miniata Fries
Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (Wulfen: Fries) R. Maire
Hygrophorus agathosmus Fries
Hygrophorus camarophyllus (Fries) Dumée
Hygrophorus cantharellus (Schweinitz) Fries
Hygrophorus chrysodon (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus coccineus Fries: Fries sensu Ricken
Hygrophorus conicus (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus eburneus (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus gliocyclus Fries
Hygrophorus hypothejus (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus laetus (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus miniatus (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus nitratus Fries
Hygrophorus niveus Fries
Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus ovinus (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus pratensis Fries
Hygrophorus psittacinus (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus pudorinus (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus puniceus (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus russula (Fries) Quélet
Hygrophorus tephroleucus (Fries) Fries
Hygrophorus virgineus Fries
Hygrophorus vitellinus Fries
Hypholoma capnoides (Fries) Karsten
Hypholoma fasciculare (W. Hudson: Fries) Kummer
Hypholoma sublateritium (Fries) Quélet
Hypocrea gelatinosa (Tode: Fries) Fries
Hypomyces hyalinus (Schweinitz: Fries) L. Tulasne
Hypomyces lactifluorum (Schweinitz: Fries) L. Tulasne
Hypomyces luteovirens (Fries: Fries) L. Tulasne
Hypoxylon fragiforme (Persoon: Fries) Kickx
Hypsiszygus tessulatus (Bulliard: Fries) Singer
Inocybe caesariata (Fries) Karsten
Inocybe calamistrata (Fries) C. C. Gillet
Inocybe fastigiata (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) Quélet
Inocybe geophylla (Sowerby: Fries) Kummer
Inocybe lacera (Fries) Karsten
Inocybe lanuginosa (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Inocybe pyriodora (Persoon: Fries) Kummer
Inocybe rimosa (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Inonotus dryadeus (Fries) Karsten
Inonotus hispidus (Fries) Karsten
Inonotus obliquus (Persoon: Fries) Pilát
Inonotus radiatus (Sowerby: Fries) Karsten
Inonotus tomentosus (Fries) Teng
Irpex lacteus (Fries) Fries
Ischnoderma benzoinum (Fries) Karsten
Ischnoderma resinosum (Fries) Karsten
Laccaria laccata (Scopoli: Fries) Broome & Berkeley
Lacrymaria velutina (Persoon: Fries) Singer
Lactarius camphoratus (Bulliard: Fries) Fries
Lactarius chrysorheus Fries
Lactarius indigo (Schweinitz) Fries
Lactarius lignyotis Fries
Lactarius piperatus (Linnaeus: Fries) Persoon
Lactarius piperatus (Fries) S. F. Gray
Lactarius torminosus (Fries) S. F. Gray
Lactarius uvidus (Fries) Fries
Lactarius volemus Fries
Lactarius zonarius (Saint-Amans) Fries sensu W. Neuhoff
Laetiporus sulphureus (Bulliard: Fries) Murrill
Lentinellus cochleatus (Fries) Karsten
Lentinellus omphalodes (Fries) Karsten
Lentinellus ursinus (Fries) R. Kühner
Lentinellus vulpinus (Fries) R. Maire & R. Kühner
Lentinus lepideus (Fries: Fries) Fries
Lentinus strigosus (Schweinitz) Fries
Lentinus tigrinus (Fries) Fries
Lentinus torulosus (Persoon: Fries) Lloyd
Lenzites betulina (Fries) Fries
Leotia atrovirens Fries
Leotia lubrica Persoon: Fries
Leotia viscosa Fries
Lepiota cepaestipes (Sowerby: Fries) Kummer
Lepiota cepaestipes (Sowerby: Fries) Patouillard
Lepiota clypeolaria (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Lepiota cristata (Fries) Kummer
Lepiota lutea (Bolton: Fries) Quélet
Lepiota naucina (Fries) Kummer
Lepiota procera (Scopoli: Fries) S. F. Gray
Leptonia incana (Fries) Quélet
Leptonia serrulata (Fries) Kummer
Lycogala epidendrum (Linnaeus) Fries
Lyophyllum decastes (Fries) Singer
Macrotyphula juncea (Fries) Berthier
Marasmius androsaceus (Linnaeus: Fries) Fries
Marasmius cohaerans (Persoon: Fries) Cooke & Quélet
Marasmius oreades (Bolton: Fries) Fries
Marasmius rotula (Scopoli: Fries) Fries
Marasmius scorodinus (Scopoli: Fries) Fries
Marasmius siccus (Schweinitz) Fries
Megacollybia platyphylla (Persoon: Fries) Pouzar & Kotlaba
Melanoleuca melaleuca (Persoon: Fries) Murrill
Meripilus giganteus (Fries) Karsten
Merulius tremellosus H. A. Schrader: Fries
Micromphale foetidum (Fries) Singer
Morchella esculenta Fries
Morchella semilibera De Chambre: Fries
Mutinus caninus (Persoon) Fries
Mycena alcalina (Fries) Quélet
Mycena corticola (Fries) S. F. Gray
Mycena epipterygia (Scopoli: Fries) S. F. Gray
Mycena galericulata (Scopoli: Fries) S. F. Gray
Mycena haematopus (Fries) Quélet
Mycena inclinata (Fries) Quélet
Mycena pura (Fries) Quélet
Mycena sanguinolenta (Fries) Quélet
Naematoloma capnoides (Fries) Karsten
Naematoloma fasciculare (W. Hudson: Fries) Karsten
Naematoloma sublateritium (Fries) Karsten
Oligoporus fragilis (Fries) Ryvarden & R. L. Gilbertson
Omphalina chrysophylla (Fries) Murrill
Omphalina ericetorum (Fries) M. Lange
Omphalina pyxidata (Bulliard: Fries) Quélet
Omphalotus olearius (De Candolle: Fries) Singer
Otidea leporina (Bataille: Fries) Fuckel
Oudemansiella radicata (Relhan: Fries) Singer
Oxyporus populinus (H. C. F. Schumacher: Fries) Donk
Panaeolus campanulatus (Bulliard: Fries) Quélet
Panaeolus foenisecii (Persoon: Fries) R. Kühner
Panaeolus semiovatus (Sowerby: Fries) Nannfeldt & S. Lundell
Panellus mitis (Persoon: Fries) Singer
Panellus ringens (Fries) H. Romagnesi
Panellus serotinus (Fries) R. Kühner
Panellus stipticus (Bulliard: Fries) Karsten
Panellus violaceofulvus (Batsch: Fries) Singer
Panus conchatus (Fries) Fries
Panus rudis Fries
Paxillus atrotomentosus (Batsch: Fries) Fries
Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fries) Fries
Paxillus panuoides Fries
Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fries) Patouillard
Phellinus ignarius (Fries) Quélet
Phellinus pini (Fries) A. Ames
Phellodon tomentosus (Fries) H. J. Banker
Phlebia radiata Fries
Phlebia tremellosa (H. A. Schrader: Fries) Nakasone & H. H. Burdsall
Phlogiotis helvelloides (Fries) G. W. Martin
Pholiota astragalina (Fries) Singer
Pholiota aurivella (Fries) Kummer
Pholiota flammans (Fries) Kummer
Pholiota lenta (Fries) Singer
Pholiota mutabilis (Fries) Kummer
Pholiota spumosa (Fries) Singer
Pholiota squarrosa (Fries) Kummer
Phyllotopsis nidulans (Fries) Singer
Phytoconis ericetorum (Fries) Kuyper & Redhead
Piptoporus betulinus (Fries) Karsten
Pleurocybella porrigens (Persoon: Fries) Singer
Pleurotus dryinus (Persoon: Fries) Kummer
Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin: Fries) Kummer
Pleurotus porrigens (Persoon: Fries) Kummer
Plicaturopsis crispa (Fries) Reid
Pluteus cervinus (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) Kummer
Pluteus leoninus (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) Kummer sensu J. Lange
Pluteus pellitus (Fries) Kummer
Pluteus petasatus (Fries) C. C. Gillet
Polyporus arcularius Bataille: Fries
Polyporus brumalis Fries
Polyporus elegans Bulliard: Fries
Polyporus fragilis Fries
Polyporus giganteus Persoon: Fries
Polyporus picipes Fries
Polyporus squamosus W. Hudson: Fries
Polyporus tuberaster Jacquin: Fries
Polyporus umbellatus Persoon: Fries
Polyporus varius Fries
Polysticta molluscus Fries
Polysticta reticulatus Nees von Esenbeck: Fries
Psathyrella candolleana (Fries) R. Maire
Psathyrella foenisecii (Persoon: Fries) A. H. Smith
Psathyrella hydrophila (Fries) R. Maire
Psathyrella velutina (Fries) Singer
Pseudocraterellus sinuosus (Fries) Corner: Heinemann
Pseudohydnum gelatinosum (Fries) Karsten
Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Jacquin: Fries) Karsten
Pycnoporus sanguineus (Linnaeus: Fries) Murrill
Ramaria botrytis (Fries) Ricken
Ramariopsis kunzei (Fries) Donk
Resupinatus applicatus (Batsch: Fries) S. F. Gray
Rhodocollybia butyracea (Bulliard: Fries) J. W. Lennox
Rhodocollybia maculata (Albertini & Schweinitz: Fries) Singer
Rickenella fibula (Bulliard: Fries) Raithelhuber
Rozites caperata (Fries) Karsten
Russula aeruginea Lindblad: Fries
Russula albonigra Krombholz: Fries
Russula alutacea Persoon: Fries
Russula aurata Fries
Russula cyanoxantha Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries
Russula decolorans Fries
Russula fragilis Fries
Russula nigricans Fries
Russula puellaris Fries
Russula rosacea (Persoon: Secretan) Fries
Russula sanguinea Fries
Russula sororia Fries
Russula xerampelina (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Secretan) Fries
Sarcodon imbricatus (Linnaeus: Fries) Karsten
Sarcoscypha coccinea (Jacquin: Fries) Lambotte
Schizophyllum commune Fries
Scleroderma geaster Fries
Scutellinia scutellata (Linnaeus: Fries) Lambotte
Sebacina incrustans (Fries) L. Tulasne
Serpula lacrimans (Fries) J. Schroeter
Sparassis crispa Wulfen: Fries
Stereum complicatum (Fries) Fries
Stereum ostrea (Blume & Nees von Esenbeck: Fries) Fries
Stropharia aeruginosa (W. Curtis: Fries) Quélet
Suillus granulatus (Linnaeus: Fries) C. E. O. Kuntze
Suillus luteus (Linnaeus: Fries) S. F. Gray
Tarzetta cupularis (Linnaeus: Fries) Lambotte
Tectella patellaris (Fries) Murrill
Thelephora palmata Scopoli: Fries
Thelephora terrestris Fries
Trametes conchifer (Schweinitz: Fries) Pilát
Trametes elegans (K. P. J. Sprengel: Fries) Fries
Trametes hirsuta (Wulfen: Fries) Pilát
Trametes suaveolens (Linnaeus: Fries) Fries
Trametes versicolor (Linnaeus: Fries) Pilát
Tremella concrescens (Fries) E. A. Burt
Tremella foliacea Persoon: Fries
Tremella mesenterica Retzius: Fries
Trichaptum biforme (Fries) Ryvarden
Trichoglossum hirsutum (Fries) Boudier
Tricholoma flavovirens (Persoon: Fries) S. Lundell
Tricholoma saponaceum (Fries) Kummer
Tricholomopsis decora (Fries) Singer
Tricholomopsis platyphylla (Persoon: Fries) Singer
Tricholomopsis rutilans (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) Singer
Tubaria confragosa (Fries) R. Kühner
Tubaria furfuracea (Persoon: Fries) C. C. Gillet
Tyromyces caesius (Fries) Murrill
Tyromyces chioneus (Fries) Karsten
Tyromyces fragilis (Fries) Donk
Urnula craterium Schweinitz: Fries
Ustulina deusta (Fries) Petrak
Verpa conica (O. F. Müller: Fries) O. P. Swartz
Volvariella bombycina (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) Singer
Volvariella hypopithys (Fries) R. L. Shaffer
Volvariella pusilla (Fries) Singer
Volvariella speciosa (Fries) Singer
Volvariella volvacea (Bulliard: Fries) Singer
Xeromphalina campanella (Bataille: Fries) R. Maire & R. Kühner
Xerula radicata (Rehlan: Fries) Dörfelt
Xylaria hypoxylon (Linnaeus: Fries) Greville
Xylobolus frustulatus (Persoon: Fries) Boidin

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Acremonium Link: Fries
Acrospermum Tode: Fries
Antennaria Link: Fries
Armillaria (Battara: Fries) Staude
Ascobolus Persoon: Fries
Aspergillus Micheli: Fries
Bolbitius Fries
Boletus Dillenius: Fries
Botrytis Micheli: Fries
Bulgaria Fries
Calocera (Fries) Fries
Calvatia Fries
Camarophyllus (Fries) Kummer
Camillea Fries
Cantharellus (Adanson) Fries
Cephalotrichum Link: Fries
Cladosporium Link: Fries
Clavaria S. Vaillant: Fries
Clitocybe (Fries) Staude
Clitopilus (Fries: Rabenhorst) Kummer
Collybia (Fries) Staude
Coprinus (Persoon: Fries) S. F. Gray
Crepidotus (Fries) Staude
Cudonia Fries
Cyclomyces Fries
Dacrymyces Nees von Esenbeck: Fries
Daedalea Persoon: Fries
Dermocybe Fries
Diachea Fries
Discina (Fries) Fries
Eccilia Fries
Elaphomyces Nees von Esenbeck: Fries
Endogone Link: Fries emend Nicols. & Gerd.
Entoloma (Fries) Kummer
Erysiphe Hedwig: Fries
Exidia Fries
Favolus P. de Beauvois: Fries
Fistulina Bulliard: Fries
Fomes (Fries) Fries
Geoglossum Persoon: Fries
Gomphidius Fries
Gyromitra Fries
Hebeloma (Fries) Kummer
Hexagona Pollich: Fries
Hydnum Linnaeus: Fries
Hygrocybe (Fries) Kummer
Hygrophorus Fries
Hypholoma (Fries) Kummer
Hypocrea Fries
Hypomyces (Fries) L. Tulasne
Hypoxylon Bulliard: Fries
Hysterium Tode: Fries
Inocybe (Fries) Fries
Irpex Fries
Isaria Persoon: Fries
Kretzschmaria Fries
Lentinus Fries
Lenzites Fries
Leotia Persoon: Fries
Leptonia (Fries) Kummer
Marasmius Fries
Microporus Fries
Mitrula Persoon: Fries
Morchella Dillenius: Fries
Mucor Micheli: Fries
Mutinus Fries
Myrothecium Tode: Fries
Myxacium Fries
Naucoria (Fries) Kummer
Nectria Fries
Nolanea (Fries) Kummer
Nyctalis Fries
Omphalia (Scopoli: Fries) Staude
Onygena Persoon: Fries
Orbilia Fries
Panaeolus (Fries) Quélet
Panus Fries
Paxillus Fries
Penicillium Link: Fries
Peziza Dillenius: Fries
Phlebia Fries
Phlegmacium Fries
Pholiota (Fries) Kummer
Pilobilus Tode: Fries
Pleurotus (Fries) Kummer
Pluteus Fries
Polyporus Micheli: Fries
Polysticta Fries
Poronia Willdenow: Fries
Psathyrella (Fries) Quélet
Psilocybe (Fries) Kummer
Ramaria (Fries) Bonorden
Rhizopogon Fries & Nordholm
Rhytisma Fries
Russula (Persoon: Fries) S. F. Gray
Sarcoscypha (Fries) Boudier
Schizophyllum Fries
Sepedonium Link: Fries
Sparassis Fries
Sphaeria A. von Haller: Fries
Stictis Persoon: Fries
Stropharia (Fries) Quélet
Syzygites C. G. Ehrenberg: Fries
Taphrina Fries
Telamonia Fries
Thelebolus Tode: Fries
Thelephora F. Ehrhart: Fries
Trametes Fries
Tremella Dillenius: Fries
Tricholoma (Fries) Staude
Trogia Fries
Tuber Micheli: Fries
Urnula Fries
Verpa O. P. Swartz: Fries
Volutella Tode: Fries

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