Paul Kummer     (1834 - 1912)

Photo of Pholiota aurivella by John Denk
Pholiota aurivella

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Selected publications


1857 - 1863     private teacher in Zerbst, Germany

1863 - 1877     assistant priest in Zerbst

1877     promoted to a higher-level priest in the Hanover parish

Kummer did a lot of work and published it all in one big book , which performed a tremendously helpful service for taxonomy. Fries had stuck all gilled mushrooms into one big genus, Agaricus. While he had since begun to segregate things out, like Coprinus and Hygrophorus, most of the gilled mushrooms were still in one big blob of a taxon. Kummer took a lot of Fries's sub-generic groups (like Tricholoma, Clitocybe, etc.) and raised them to the level of genera, leaving Agaricus with the restricted sense that it has today. In fact, he (or someone else around this time) restricted Agaricus entirely out of existence - - the taxon we now call Agaricus was called Psalliota for a long time (because everyone was so sick of Agaricus?). But eventually Agaricus made a come-back.


Heinrich Dörfelt & Heike Heklau (1998) Die Geschichte der Mykologie
      (Die Geschichte der Mykologie)

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Selected Publications

Paul Kummer (1871) Der Führer in die Pilzkunde (Mushroom-hunter's guide) 146 pp.

Paul Kummer (1874) Der Führer in die Flechtenkunde (Lichen-hunter's guide)

Paul Kummer (1880) Praktisches Pilzbuch für jedermann (Practical mushroom-book for everyone)

Paul Kummer (1881 - 1884) Der Führer in die Pilzkunde (Mushroom-hunter's guide) 2nd ed. 2 vol.

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Armillaria mellea (M. Vahl: Fries) Kummer
Camarophyllus pratensis (Fries) Kummer
Clitocybe clavipes (Fries) Kummer
Clitocybe cyathiformis (Fries) Kummer
Clitocybe dealbata (Fries) Kummer
Clitocybe gibba (Fries) Kummer
Clitocybe odora (Fries) Kummer
Clitocybe squamulosa (Fries) Kummer
Clitopilus prunulus (Scopoli: Fries) Kummer
Collybia racemosa (Fries) Kummer
Collybia tuberosa (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Collybia sensu lato butyracea (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Collybia sensu lato dryophila (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Collybia sensu lato maculata (Schweinitz & Albertini: Fries) Kummer
Cortinarius armillatus (Fries) Kummer
Crepidotus applanatus (Persoon: Fries) Kummer
Hypholoma fasciculare (W. Hudson: Fries) Kummer
Inocybe geophylla (Sowerby: Fries) Kummer
Inocybe lanuginosa (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Inocybe pyriodora (Persoon: Fries) Kummer
Inocybe rimosa (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Lepiota acutesquamosa (J. A. Weinmann) Kummer
Lepiota cepaestipes (Sowerby: Fries) Kummer
Lepiota clypeolaria (Bulliard: Fries) Kummer
Lepiota cristata (Fries) Kummer
Lepiota naucina (Fries) Kummer
Leptonia serrulata (Fries) Kummer
Pholiota aurivella (Fries) Kummer
Pholiota flammans (Fries) Kummer
Pholiota mutabilis (Fries) Kummer
Pholiota squarrosa (Fries) Kummer
Pleurotus dryinus (Persoon: Fries) Kummer
Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin: Fries) Kummer
Pleurotus porrigens (Persoon: Fries) Kummer
Pluteus cervinus (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) Kummer
Pluteus leoninus (Ja.C. Schaeffer: Fries) Kummer sensu J. Lange
Pluteus pellitus (Fries) Kummer
Tricholoma saponaceum (Fries) Kummer

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Camarophyllus (Fries) Kummer
Clitopilus (Fries: Rabenhorst) Kummer
Entoloma (Fries) Kummer
Hebeloma (Fries) Kummer
Hygrocybe (Fries) Kummer
Hypholoma (Fries) Kummer
Leptonia (Fries) Kummer
Naucoria (Fries) Kummer
Nolanea (Fries) Kummer
Pholiota (Fries) Kummer
Pleurotus (Fries) Kummer
Psilocybe (Fries) Kummer

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