Terms discussed: effective, International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, invalid, publication, valid
Fungi are named under the guidelines of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Basically, this means that a name for a new taxon must be validly and effectively published before it will be accepted by the botanical community. Effective publication means publishing a name in such a way that a wide range of people have a reasonable shot at access to it. Valid publication means (among other things) you have to include a diagnosis of the taxon in Latin, showing why it is distinct from all other taxa at the same level. In practice, this diagnosis is usually just a short description at about the same level of detail that you'd find in a field guide.
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That is, believe me, all you want to know about botanical nomenclature. If you think you want to know more, check out Ron Petersen's Nomenclature tutorial, which includes links for more details if you decide you really want to know more about botanical nomenclature. If you're looking at this entry to find out what the funny lists of people are after species names, check out the entry for citations.
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